11. List of interviewees
Interviews were conducted in fall 2009; the goal was to discuss recreation and hydrokinetic development with people from a diverse range of recreation activities and geographic locations. Interviewees were suggested through a brainstorming process and additional networking. Interview questions generally focused on 1) information about various recreation activities; 2) a review of potential hydrokinetic impacts on the target recreation opportunity; and 3) opportunities for studying impacts (including networking options within a recreation community). A few interviewees offered expertise on licensing process issues rather than recreation issues, and interviews were structured differently. Brief notes below outline interviewees’ expertise and the topics that received most attention during their interviews. While information from these experts on recreation provided a wealth of information for this document, they are not responsible for its content or conclusions (any errors are the responsibility of the authors).
Julie Anderson. Washington Water Trails Association. This is an non-profit organization with a focus on developing and protecting access for paddlers in the Puget Sound region and other areas in the Northwest. More information is available at email@example.com. Interview discussion focused on kayaking access issues, sea kayaking recreation opportunities, and networking options among sea kayakers.
Peter Arnold. Chewonki Foundation. Chewonki is a non-profit organization that offers environmental education programs to youth and others, primarily in Maine coastal and river/lake settings where sailing, sea kayaking, and river paddling are featured recreation activities. It also works on “sustainability” projects and has been assisting the city of Wiscasset with a potential hydrokinetic project. More information about Chewonki is available at www.chewonki.org. Interview discussion focused on potential recreation impacts from the Wiscasset project, recreation craft navigation issues in coastal Maine, recreation user networking, and aesthetic impacts from submerged devices.
Kris Arnold. Avid diver in the Pacific Northwest and Florida Keys. Interview focused on types of recreation and technical diving opportunities (including diving in high current areas), diving attractions in the Northwest, diver networking options, and potential diver responses to access and aesthetic impacts from hydrokinetic development.
Tom Babbitt. Yacht broker and sailor with a focus on the Maine coast (50+ years of experience). More information at Wayfarer Marine or East Coast Yacht Sales (www.ecys.com). Interview focused on sailing navigation needs, sail racing and cruising trip characteristics, networking options among sailors and other coastal recreation users, and potential impacts from hydrokinetic development (especially access restrictions or aesthetics).
Steve Bennett. Sound Rowers. Kayak and other paddle sport racing in Puget Sound. This non-profit organization is one of the primary organizers of paddle races in the region. More information available at soundrowers.org. Interview discussion focused on race routes, networking options among paddlers, and potential hydrokinetic impacts (particularly potential access restrictions and aesthetics).
John Beuttler. California Sportfishing Protection Alliance (CSPA). This is a non-profit organization dedicated to conservation of California’s fisheries and their aquatic habitat. Interview discussion focused on networking options for fishing studies, and a review of potential impacts from hydrokinetic development on anglers. More information about CSPA is available at www.calsport.org.
Flaxon Conway. Oregon State University professor and researcher in Ocean Sciences. Her research program includes potential hydrokinetic impacts on recreational and commercial fishing, or related social impacts in communities. Interview discussion focused on challenges of finding and developing information from local and recreation users, several specific hydrokinetic developments on the Oregon coast, issues related to EcoTrust fishing grounds “importance” studies, and future recreation-hydrokinetic research needs.
Tom Christopher. New England FLOW. This is a non-profit organization focused on securing improved flow regimes on New England rivers for boating and other recreation, often through relicensing processes. He has been involved in hydropower issues since the late 1980’s and pioneered recreation stakeholder involvement in traditional relicensing. Interview discussion focused on importance of cumulative ecosystem impacts, potential physical impacts on currents from hydrokinetic development, and the importance of setting in assessing aesthetic impacts.
Frank Daignault. Author and lecturer on east coast surf and shore-based salt water fishing (55 yars experience). Titles include Fly Fishing the Striper Surf, Twenty Years on the Cape, The Trophy Striper, and Striper Surf. More information is available at www.stripersurf.com/daignault.html. Interview discussion focused on access issues (including cumulative impacts of access degradation for multiple reasons) and aesthetic issues (including differences in sensitivity among different types of anglers).
Bob D'Amico. Author, lecturer, and website developer on east coast surf and shore-based salt water fishing (over 50 years experience). More information available at www.stripersurf.com. Interview discussion focused on boat and shore-based techniques for different species; potential impacts from hydrokinetic development on access, fishing success, and aesthetics; cumulative impacts from other access restrictions; and networking options for developing local information.
Sherrie Duncan. Private kayaker and fisheries biologist with extensive experience in Alaskan and Pacific Northwest waters. Interview discussion focused on potential hydrokinetic development impacts on recreation (especially access restrictions and aesthetics) and local resident or recreation user networking options.
Bob Eder. Commercial fisherman, member of Fishermen Involved in Natural Energy (FINE), and board member of Oregon Wave Energy Trust. Interview discussion focused on process issues and stakeholder involvement associated with licensing of hydrokinetic development.
Jordan Fields. Board member of Florida Oceanographic Society and avid surfer with extensive (42 years) east coast and international experience. Interview discussion focused on Atlantic coast surfing opportunities, networking options among surfers, potential impacts from hydrokinetic development on wave characteristics, access restrictions, noise, and aesthetics.
Shawna Franklin. Sea kayak instructor and co-owner of Body Boat Blade International (instruction and retail store) in Washington’s San Juan Islands. With over 20 years of kayaking experience and an instruction focus, she provided general information on sea kayaking in Puget Sound and the San Juans, sea kayaker networks, and concerns over recent proposed “no boat” areas to protect Orcas in the San Juans (potential lost sea kayak access that has parallels to potential hydrokinetic development access restrictions). She also provided specific information about Deception Pass use levels and safety concerns (which could interact with potential hydrokinetic development in the area).
Paul Hartfield. US Fish and Wildlife Service biologist and Lower Mississippi canoeist and angler; he is based in Jackson, Mississippi. He provided background information on several recreation opportunities on the river, with specific information about biodiversity, fisheries, local fishing techniques (e.g., “jug fishing”), interactions between recreation users and barge traffic, navigation issues, and potential hydrokinetic development proposals in the Lower Mississippi.
Kaety Hildenbrand. Marine fisheries educator for Oregon Sea Grant (Oregon State University). Oregon Sea Grant develops and supports research, outreach, and education related to marine and coastal resources. She has participated in some outreach meetings related to recreation or fishing impacts from hydrokinetic projects. Interview discussion focused on recreation user networking options, community involvement issues (including “trust” issues in developing information about priority recreation uses or fishing grounds), and aesthetic impact assessments.
Tim Holschlag. Fly angling guide, author, and lecturer in Upper Mississippi basin (primarily Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa). Interview focused on upper Midwest angling opportunities (including vessel types and fishing techniques), use levels, ecological concerns from hydrokinetic development, networking options among anglers, and aesthetics needs for different types of anglers. More information about his trips is available at www.smallmouthflyangler.com.
Don Hudson. Chewonki Foundation. Chewonki is a non-profit organization that offers environmental education programs to youth and others, primarily in Maine coastal and river/lake settings where sailing, sea kayaking, and river paddling are featured recreation activities.
Brian Jacobson. Avid near and off-shore fisherman off Virginia and North Carolina Coast; he has pioneered off shore fishing from Personal Watercraft and operates a website on the topic at www.jetskibrian.com). Interview discussion focused on boat-based fishing opportunities on the central Atlantic coast and potential hydrokinetic development impacts (access restrictions, aesthetics, line entanglement issues).
Jeremy Jones. Avid diver, diving instructor, and owner of Washington Divers (Bellingham dive shop; since 2001). Instructs all levels of diving, including open water and technical (mixed gas) courses. He provided background on recreational and technical diving in the Northwest, including informal diver networks, artificial reefs, diving attractions, and potential aesthetic and noise issues related to hydrokinetic development.
Ken Kimball. Director of research for Appalachian Mountain Club. Extensive experience with traditional hydropower relicensing, wind power projects, and river recreation. He discussed “lessons learned” from other power licensing efforts, including specific discussions of wildlife impacts, aesthetics assessments, and the need to include natural resource planners in siting and design decisions.
Bill King. Private marina operator on the Upper Mississippi near Hastings, Minnesota (site of first licensed hydrokinetics devices in the country). Interview discussion focused on types of uses in the Upper Mississippi, responses to the Hastings project, and potential recreation impacts if additional similar units were to be developed in other areas.
Alberto Knie. Avid salt water angler, author, and charter boat captain; affiliated with Recreation Fishing Alliance and NY Sport Fishing Federation. Interview discussion focused on salt water fishing opportunities on the Atlantic coast, eroded access from multiple causes over the past several decades, angler networking options, and likely angler responses to hydrokinetic-caused access restrictions.
Curtis Knight. California Trout, Northern Representative. Avid fly angler with hydropower relicensing experience. Interview discussion focused on potential hydrokinetic impacts on river-based fishing, particularly on larger rivers (e.g., Sacramento) where these technologies may be more likely.
Jan Konigsberg. Hydropower Reform Coalition staff in Alaska who works on Yukon River fisheries projects and several traditional hydropower projects in Southeast and Southcentral Alaska. Interview discussion focused on proposed Yukon hydrokinetic development, potential recreation impacts, and local residents and recreation user networking options.
Brian Lockwood. Avid salt water and estuary angler, often using personal watercraft. Has developed a web blog on the topic; more information at www.jetskibrian.com. Interview discussion focused on fishing opportunity attributes, navigation requirements for different craft, and potential impacts from hydrokinetic development (especially entanglement issues, aesthetics).
Jim Martin. West Coast Director for Recreational Fishing Alliance (RFA). RFA is a non-profit lobbying organization focused on recreational fishing rights in marine fisheries issues. It supports litigation requiring comprehensive planning prior to site by site licensing of hydrokinetic projects. He provided extensive background information on sport and commercial fisheries along the California coast (including abalone diving), fishing vessel navigation capabilities (ability to avoid potential me development), and issues related to compensating commercial or recreation fishermen affected by such development.
Steven Medeiros. President of Rhode Island Saltwater Anglers Association and avid salt water angler. RISAA is a non-profit organization focused on education, sportsmanship, support for marine conservation, and a “unified voice preserve and protect the rights, traditions and the future of recreational fishing in Rhode Island.” Interview discussion focused on shore-based fishing opportunities, networking options among anglers, and a range of potential hydrokinetic development impacts (e.g., especially access concerns, but also fish abundance changes and aesthetics).
Kate Miller. Legal analyst for Trout Unlimited with a focus on hydropower impacts on fresh water fisheries issues. Interview focused on potential hydrokinetic affects on fish and fishing in river-based settings, but also addressed access restriction and aesthetic impacts.
Beth Mitchell. Attorney for Fishermen Interested in Safe Hydrokinetics (FISH). Lead in developing litigation requiring comprehensive planning prior to site by site licensing of hydrokinetic projects. Interview discussion focused on state and federal agency processes for licensing or permitting hydrokinetic development, advocacy for broader scale marine planning, specific recreation opportunities off the California coast, and a range of potential impacts from hydrokinetic development (including access and aesthetic impacts on charter fishing operators, abalone diving, whale watching, and fishing).
Mark Perry. Executive Director, Florida Oceanographic Society (a non-profit that advocates for marine resources, conducts research and monitoring of marine life, and operates the 60 acre Florida Oceangraphic Coastal Center). Interview discussion focused on the diversity of coastal recreation in Florida (including scuba, snorkeling, boating, and fishing) and potential impacts from hydrokinetic development. Additional information focused on artificial reefs and fish attraction devices. Additional information about FOS is available at www.floridaoceanographic.org.
John Pfeiffer. Columbia Basin Flycasters (fly angler group based in tri-cities area in central Washington). Interview discussion focused on potential hydrokinetic development impacts on fishing opportunities in Pacific Northwest, including boat and shore based fishing.
John Ruskey. Avid canoeist/kayaker and owner of Quapaw Canoe Company in Clarksville, Mississippi. He has been taking multi-day canoe/kayak trips on the Mississippi (from St. Louis to the Gulf of Mexico) most from for nearly 30 years and has guided similar trips since 1998. He provided extensive information about recreation values on the river, non-motorized trip options, use estimates for other types of recreation trips (e.g., anglers, powerboats), development levels, access issues, barge-recreation use interactions, and potential responses to hydrokinetic development or potential access restrictions.
Margie Simpson. Avid cruising sailor, with most experience in Puget Sound and the Pacific Northwest. Interview discussion focused on types of sailing opportunities, navigation requirements for different craft, access restrictions, sailor networking options, potential aesthetics impacts, and salvage concerns.
Brandi Smith. Clemson University researcher with expertise on night sky / light pollution issues. Interview discussion focused on potential aesthetic impacts.
Rem Smith. President of Hole in the Wall Kayaking Club (sea kayakers in San Juan Islands). Interview discussion focused on networking options among kayakers, safety and navigation issues, and potential access restrictions or aesthetic impacts from hydrokinetic development.
Glenn Spain. Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Association (trade organization focused on CA/OR coastal fishing issues). Interview discussion focused on potential impacts (especially access restrictions) from hydrokinetic development on commercial and recreation fishing on the CA coast.
Ray Spillman. Avid (20+ years) salt water angler, with most experience off the North Carolina coast and in Lower Chesapeake Bay. Interview focused on near shore boat-based fishing opportunities, including networking options among private and charter fishing users.
Peter Stauffer. Avid surfer and Policy Coordinator for Oregon Surfrider Foundation; has been involved in Douglas County, Oregon hydrokinetic development proposals and recreation study requests. More information is available at www.surfrider.org/oregon. Interview discussion focused on a full range of potential hydrokinetic development impacts on recreation (particularly surfing), including wave characteristic issues, access restrictions, aesthetics, ecological impacts, networking options among surfers, and recreation research needs in licensing efforts.
Dave Steindorf. Avid whitewater kayaker, fly angler, and Stewardship Director for American Whitewater with primary focus on California rivers (particularly thorough traditional relicensing processes). Interview discussion focused on potential hydrokinetic impacts on whitewater in river settings, including navigation concerns, impacts on rapid features, and assessing aesthetic impacts.
Bobbi Walker. Executive Director of National Association of Charterboat Operators. This national trade organization has 3,400 members nationwide; she is based out of Orange Beach, Alabama (more information available at www.nacocharters.org). Interview discussion focused on charter fishing opportunities, navigation needs for different vessels, networking options among charter captains, and the range of potential impacts from hydrokinetic development (especially fish abundance changes, access restrictions, and aesthetics).
Doug Welch. Executive director of Maine Water Trail Association. This is a non-profit organization that has developed a 375-mile chain of over 180 coastal islands and sites along the coast of Maine for boaters and paddlers (among the first water trails in the country). Interview discussion focused on North Atlantic coast recreation opportunities (sailing, powerboating, and sea kayaking), access issues, and other potential hydrokinetic development impacts (e.g., aesthetics, noise, navigation impacts).
Karl Wickstrom. Avid salt water angler, Founder/Editor-in-chief of Florida Sportsman, and a leader in the Florida-based Rivers Coalition (focused on St. Lucie River and Everglades restoration). Interview discussion focused on Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico sportfishing opportunities, angler networking options, artificial reefs, potential impacts from hydrokinetic development (e.g., access restrictions, aesthetics), and other alternative energy development (e.g. wind).