Figures

Figure 1.   Generic depiction of a hydroelectric dam and facilities.

Figure 2.   Placement of tracer rocks for studying bedload transport.

Figure 3.   Placement of scour chains for studying sediment flux.

Figure 4.   Sediment thickness in a reservoir measured by topographical differencing.

Figure 5.   Flow chart of the instream flows incremental methodology (IFIM) and one-dimensional (1D) physical habitat simulation (PHABSIM) approach for use in instream flow studies.

Figure 6.   Two-dimensional topographic profile generated by the River2D model for use in evaluating instream flows

Figure 7.   Example results from a habitat criteria mapping approach for evaluating instream flows.

Figure 8.   Example of hydraulic modeling results for evaluation of flow fluctuations and stranding potential.

Figure 9.   Transects used in a direct observation evaluation of stranding potential in a fluctuating reservoir.

Figure 10. Experimental net enclosure to evaluate stranding potential.

Figure 11. Radio tags for use in evaluating entrainment rates and migration delay.

Figure 12. PIT tag antenna at a spillway for estimation of entrainment rates.

Figure 13. Balloon tag for use in evaluating injury and mortality from entrainment at hydroelectric facilities.

Figure 14. Two versions of a sensor fish device used for measuring physical conditions in turbines and spillways.

Figure 15. Direct capture using rotary screw trap (top) or fyke net (bottom) to evaluate entrainment rates, including injury and mortality rates, at a hydropower facility.

Figure 16. Example of quantitative model to evaluate population dynamics.

Figure 17.  Methods to evaluate terrestrial habitat connectivity and wildlife use of crossing structures (top), including as motion/heat sensing cameras (middle), and soot plates (bottom) to record wildlife tracks.