Salmon

Chapter 9: Dams and mitigation of their effects

Volume: 
Nat'l Acad. Press, Washington, DC
Year: 
1996
Abstract: 

This paper examines the effects of dam construction and operation in the Columbia River Basin on salmon populations. While the hydrograph of the Columbia River has been significantly impacted by dams, the seasonality of regulated flow on the Snake River has been less affected. The Snake River storage has been used for agricultural diversion while the Columbia has been for electrical generation. The reservoir system has effects on flow velocities, water chemistry (nitrogen supersaturation), habitat availability and reliability, and stream temperatures. Dams block about one third of the Columbia River watershed to access by anadromous fish.
Effects of Dams on Salmon;
Fish kills occur as a result of several characteristics of dams. Bruising, descailing, and stress caused by by-pass facilities; susceptibility to prey following delivery from by-pass to outfall; estuary damage; effects on the homing ability of fish; limited success in fish use of by-pass facilities. The effect of migration speed on smolt survival is uncertain but assumed to have an impact. More research is necessary.
Mitigation of Dam's Effects on Salmon:
Seven measures for mitigation of dams' effects on salmon are discussed
1. Fish passage facilities 2. Predator control 3. Transportation 4. Spill 5. Flow augmentation 6. Reservoir drawdown 7. Dam removal.

Author(s): 

National Research Council , NRC

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Preserving Salmon Biodiversity

Volume: 
Vol. 89 (May-June) 220-227
Year: 
2001
Abstract: 

With so many people affected [by the decimation of salmon runs in the Pacific Northwest], proposals for protecting salmon are highly contentious. Although the root causes of the problem have long been well documented, investigators are just beginning to understand that human activities have selectively eliminated some populations of salmon while favoring others, resulting in the loss of much of the genetic heritage in these amazing animals. So here we try to show the risks confronting salmon populations and salmon biodiversity with a focus on the potential for genetic loss.

Author(s): 

Levin , Phillip S. , Schiewe , Michael H.

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Characterization of spillway passage conditions at Ice Harbor Dam, Snake River, Washington, 2003

Year: 
2004
Abstract: 

This report describes a study of spillway passage conditions for juvenile spring chinook salmon at Ice Harbor Dam in spring 2003. The Sensor Fish Device was used to measure conditions experienced by juvenile salmon passing over a deflector installed at the base of a spillway in the dam to mitigate total dissolved gas in the spill discharge as it enters the stilling basin. The Sensor Fish Device is a waterproof, nearly neutrally buoyant sensor package developed by Battelle with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy

Author(s): 

Carlson, T.J., Duncan, J.P., Gilbride, T.L.,Prepared by Johnson, R. L., B. G. Gray, S. L. Blanton, J. P. Duncan, R. W. Gilbert, G. A. Anderson, and D. A.

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An experimental study of the stranding of juvenile coho salmon and rainbow trout during rapid flow decreases under winter condit

Volume: 
Vol. 15, pp. 473-479
Year: 
1995
Abstract: 

The stranding of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisuich and rainbow trout O.
mykiss on river bars caused by rapid decreases in river flow during the operation of hydroelectric
facilities was investigated in an artificial stream channel. We conducted experiments with winter
water temperatures (

Author(s): 

Bradford, M.J.

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