hydropower dams

Developing fish passage and protection at hydropower dams

Source: 
ScienceDirect
Year: 
2006
Abstract: 

The development of waterways, for hydropower and other industrial uses, has substantially altered many of the freshwater habitats of the planet and this has had considerable impact upon aquatic organisms. Industrial changes in aquatic ecosystems, including hydropower development, can restrict or delay fish migration, increase predation, affect water quantity and quality, and subject fish to direct damage and stress. This review will focus on the consequences for fish welfare and the progress towards developing the means to pass and protect fish at hydropower dams, at water withdrawal facilities, and in other engineered aquatic environments. It primarily concerns the large mainstem hydropower dams in the Columbia-Snake River Basin in the northwestern United States. Some methods for improving fish passage and protection at hydropower damsinvolve modifications and additions to engineered structures and occasionally use sensory stimuli such as light, sound, turbulence, or electric fields to influence fish distributions. Measures to improve fish survival, like spilling water at a dam to provide non-turbine passage, can cause other problems for fish, for example higher dissolved gas concentrations downstream. Reducing losses of fish in industrial environments is desirable in both the industrialized world, where many fish-related problems currently exist, and in the developing world, here lessons already learned may make future development more cost-effective and benign.

Author(s): 

Carl R. Schilt

Contact: 

Environmental Research AssociatesP.O. Box 225North Bonneville, WA 98639

Notes: 

Rules for success in environmental negotiation

Volume: 
Vol. 1( ) 30-37
Year: 
1995
Abstract: 

Scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecological Science Center of the National Biological Service conducted a series of case studies of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license consultations. The goal of these studies was to test hypotheses abbot factors that contribute to success in interagency negotiations. Based on their analysis of six case studies, the researchers constructed a list of ten "rules for success." Examples include: Analyze the incentives of each party to negotiate, paying special attention to parties who gain by not negotiating; Clarify the technical issues so that all agree and they coincide with resource management objectives; and make sure the final agreement is feasible form both a physical and a policy perspective so that it can actually be implemented. These rules can be used to plan for negotiations and to diagnose ongoing negotiations.

Author(s): 

Taylor , J.G. , Burkardt , N. . Lamb , B.L.

Contact: 
Notes: 
Category: 

Need for ecosystem management of large rivers and their floodplains

Volume: 
Vol. 45(3) 168-182
Year: 
1995
Abstract: 

In this article, I describe the importance of large river-floodplain ecosystems and some of the consequences of altering their natural processes, functions, and connectivity. Then I contrast the species-focused management typically employed by natural rescue agencies with the ecosystem approach. I define ecosystem management as working with the natural driving forces and variability in these ecosystems with the goal of maintaining or recovering biological integrity. I focus on flood pulses both because they drive these systems and because the great floods of 1993-1994 in Asia, Europe, and North America heightened public awareness, thereby creating an opportunity to change river management policies.
I draw my examples largely from the upper Mississippi River and Illinois River because I am most familiar with them. They also exemplify both the conflicts between development and conservation of large floodplain rivers that have occurred world wide and the more recent restoration and rehabilitation efforts that are beginning in Europe and the United States.
The Mississippi River and Illinois River comprise the Upper Mississippi River System, which the US congress designated as both a "nationally significant ecosystem" as well as a "nationally significant waterway" in the Water Resources Development Act of 1986.Plans for even greater expansion of navigation capacity are currently being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. But federal and state natural resource agencies and several environmental groups fear that the integrity of the upper Mississippi is being compromised. They have issued their own strategies and plans for conserving and restoring the river.

Author(s): 

Sparks , R.E.

Contact: 
Notes: 
Category: 

Morphological and sedimentological changes in a gravel-bed river following 12 years of flow regulation of hydropower

Volume: 
Vol. 10( ) 247-264
Year: 
1995
Abstract: 

The flow regime of the gravel-bedded river North Tyne has been regulated by the Kielder reservoir for the past 12 years; for the past nine years, regulation has been dominated by hydropower generation. Diurnal stage fluctuations of up to 0.6m are experienced during periods of peak hydropower flows. The main morphological and sedimentological impacts of this regulation are identified and physical explanations provided for the observed adjustments. The main morphological adjustments are identified as the degradation of riffle spawning grounds, the development of fine ssediment berms along channel margins, the aggradation of pools, vegetation of former gravel shoals and the growth of tributary confluence bars. Sedimentological adjustments are subtle and are characterized by higher percentages of fines within spawning gravels, coarsening of surface gravels and the development of a stable, strong bed fabric. The physical explanations for these adjustments relate to changes in the sediment transport regime controlled by the hydraulics associated with the pool-riffle swquence during hydropower generation

Author(s): 

Sear , D.A.

Contact: 
Notes: 
Category: 

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