The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has proposed a "Cluster Impact Assessment Procedure" (CIAP) for analyzing cumulative impacts from hydropower projects on the resources of a river basin. While the CIAP is based on analyses of perceived magnitudes of impacts, it avoids any interpretation of the potential for basin-wide interaction among the projects leading to an accumulation of their effects in the resources. A measure of an "impact interaction potential" (IIP) is suggested here to describe the functional side of cumulative impacts. This tendency of a project cluster to cause cumulative impacts, or its "cumulativity", is examined through subbasin disaggregations of projects and resources. A dispersion of the project's impacts across subbasins I evaluated using linear algebra and principles of information theory. The formalized algorithm is programmed in BASIC and proposed as an IIP Assessment Loop in the CIAP. The IIP loop attaches to the Multiple Projects Assessment Phase as a causal interpretation of cumulative impacts, complementary to the effects analyzed via the CIAP's use of weighted summations. Use of the algorithm is demonstrated with a hypothetical project cluster in the Salmon River Basin (Idaho).
A discussion of the factors involved in the policy and subsidizing of the operation of hydropower dams. Included are the economics of river barges. The subsidies of flood control and irrigation are discussed. Also, the environmental strains caused by impaired fish passage and transportation, reduced flow regimes, as well as other ecological factors. Decommissioning is also discussed briefly. A general overview of policy issues involving hydropower.
American Rivers produced abstract
The freshwater bivalves (Mollusca: Order Unionoida) are classified in six families and about 165 genera worldwide. Worldwide rate of extinction of freshwater bivalves is poorly understood at this time. The North American freshwater fauna north of Mexico is represented by 297 taxa in two families. There are 19 taxa presumed extinct, 44 species listed or proposed as federally endangered, and there are another 69 species that may be endangered. A number of these endangered species are functionally extinct (individuals of a species surviving but not reproducing). Extinction of North American unionoid bivalves can be traced to impoundment and inundation of riffle habitat in major rivers such as the Ohio, Tennessee and Cumberland and Mobile Bay Basin. Damming resulted in the local loss of the bivalves' host fish. This loss of the obligate host fish, coupled with increased siltation, and various types of industrial and domestic pollution have resulted in the rapid decline in the unionoid bivalve fauna in North America. Freshwater communities in Europe have experienced numerous problems, some local unionoid populations have been extirpated, but no unionoid species are extinct. Three taxa from Israel are now reported as extinct. Other nations such as China that have problems with soil erosion and industrial pollution or have numerous dams on some of the rivers (e.g. South America: Rio Parana) are probably experiencing problems of local extirpation if not the extinction of their endemic freshwater bivalve fauna