This protocol provides a general overview of survey methods and
requirements for the eight lichen species covered by this protocol. In Section
I, a procedure is outlined that describes the circumstances that would trigger
a need for survey. Survey methods, data collection, documentation,
vouchering, and specimen verification procedures are also described. Section
II provides the specific habitat and range information for individual species
that should be used to focus survey efforts. Section II also provides detailed
descriptions of each species including key identification features and how to
distinguish them from similar-appearing lichens. The Standards and
Guidelines for Amendments to the Survey and Manage Protection Buffer, and
other Mitigation Measures Standards and Guidelines (USDA & USDI 2001)
provide the basis for this protocol and pages 21-26 should be reviewed for
background or additional guidance.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Two types of modification of the hydrological system are present in the same regulated segment of the Lima River (NW Portugal): (a) a reduced and constant flow from hypolimnetic release; (b) an intense irregular flow (daily and seasonal). Using multivariate techniques it was possible to compare the effects of these two kinds of disturbance on the macroinvertebrate communities. The communities colonizing both sites exhibited a higher variation in composition and diversity when compared to undisturbed sites. However, such variability was even more evident in the first case, in spite of the stability of the environmental conditions. Such temporal replacement of species is linked to the dominance of tolerant taxa with short life cycles. In the regulated segment the poor water quality and the lack of litter input impacted mainly on the shredders group. This work shows the failure of the practice of releasing constant flows as an attempt to mitigate regulation impacts.
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