Policy/Law

Clean Water Act Section 401 Provides the Key to Stream Protection in Hydropower Licensing

Volume: 
Vol. 2, No. 2, April 1991
Year: 
1991
Abstract: 

Although the FERC has tried repeatedly to restrict the states' authority under section 401, the states can prevent degradation of the quality and uses of waterways through the development and enforcement of strong water quality standards.

Author(s): 

Birnbaum, S. Elizabeth

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Translating restoration scenarios into habitat conditions: an initial step in evaluating recovery strategies for Chinook salmon

Volume: 
Vol. 63, pp. 1578-1595 doi:10.1139/F06-055
Year: 
2006
Abstract: 

One of the challenges associated with recovering imperiled species, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), is identifying a set of actions that will ensure species

Author(s): 

Bartz, K.K., Lagueux, K.M., Scheuerell, M.D.,T. Beechie, A. D. Hass, and M. H. Ruckelshaus

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The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines

Volume: 
Vol. 16, pp. 613-622
Year: 
2001
Abstract: 

Rates of hybridization and introgression are increasing dramatically worldwide because of translocations of organisms and habitat modifications by humans. Hybridization has contributed to the extinction of many species through direct and indirect means. However, recent studies have found that natural hybridization has played an important role in the evolution of many plant and animal taxa. Determining whether hybridization is natural or anthropogenic is crucial for conservation, but is often difficult to achieve. Controversy has surrounded the setting of appropriate conservation policies to deal with hybridization and introgression. Any policy that deals with hybrids must be flexible and must recognize that nearly every situation involving hybridization is different enough that general rules are not likely to be effective.We provide a categorization of hybridization to help guide Rates of hybridization and introgression are increasing dramatically worldwide because of translocations of organisms and habitat modifications by humans. Hybridization has contributed to the extinction of many species through direct and indirect means. However, recent studies have found that natural hybridization has played an important role in the evolution of many plant and animal taxa. Determining whether hybridization is natural or anthropogenic is crucial for conservation, but is often difficult to achieve. Controversy has surrounded the setting of appropriate conservation policies to deal with hybridization and introgression. Any policy that deals with hybrids must be flexible and must recognize that nearly every situation involving hybridization is different enough that general rules are not likely to be effective.We provide a categorization of hybridization to help guide management decisions.

Author(s): 

Allendorf, F.W., Bayles, D., Bottom, D.L.,K.P. Currens, C.A. Frissell, D. Hankin, J.A. Lichatowich, W. Nehlsen, P.C. Trotter, T.H. Williams

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